The Big Misconception About Electricity

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Жыл бұрын

The misconception is that electrons carry potential energy around a complete conducting loop, transferring their energy to the load. This video was sponsored by Caséta by Lutron. Learn more at
Further analysis of the large circuit is available here:
Special thanks to Dr Geraint Lewis for bringing up this question in the first place and discussing it with us. Check out his and Dr Chris Ferrie’s new book here:
Special thanks to Dr Robert Olsen for his expertise. He quite literally wrote the book on transmission lines, which you can find here:
Special thanks to Dr Richard Abbott for running a real-life experiment to test the model.
Huge thanks to all of the experts we talked to for this video -- Dr Karl Berggren, Dr Bruce Hunt, Dr Paul Stanley, Dr Joe Steinmeyer, Ian Sefton, and Dr David G Vallancourt.
A great video about the Poynting vector by the Science Asylum: • Circuit Energy do...
Sefton, I. M. (2002). Understanding electricity and circuits: What the text books don’t tell you. In Science Teachers’ Workshop. --
Feynman, R. P., Leighton, R. B., & Sands, M. (1965). The feynman lectures on physics; vol. Ii, chapter 27. American Journal of Physics, 33(9), 750-752. --
Hunt, B. J. (2005). The Maxwellians. Cornell University Press.
Müller, R. (2012). A semiquantitative treatment of surface charges in DC circuits. American Journal of Physics, 80(9), 782-788. --
Galili, I., & Goihbarg, E. (2005). Energy transfer in electrical circuits: A qualitative account. American journal of physics, 73(2), 141-144. --
Deno, D. W. (1976). Transmission line fields. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, 95(5), 1600-1611. --
Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Luis Felipe, Anton Ragin, Paul Peijzel, S S, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Sam Lutfi, MJP, Gnare, Nick DiCandilo, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson,Ron Neal
Written by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev
Animation by Mike Radjabov and Ivy Tello
Filmed by Derek Muller and Emily Zhang
Footage of the sun by Raquel Nuno
Edited by Derek Muller
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Music from Epidemic Sound
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Emily Zhang

Пікірлер: 76 487
Haven DeZeeuw
Haven DeZeeuw Жыл бұрын
I’m so glad this video exists. I use to completely not even understand how electricity worked, and now I still don’t.
babushka Жыл бұрын
simon konečný
simon konečný Жыл бұрын
Paul met Debbie
Paul met Debbie Жыл бұрын
I am still confused, but at a much higher level.
Bwig Mytch
Bwig Mytch Жыл бұрын
David Uliana
David Uliana 2 ай бұрын
Holy crap. I have degrees in engineering, have investigated numerous electrical fires and worked for decades developing electro-mechanical devices, and no Electrical Engineer has ever explained electricity this way. Things now make a lot more sense.
Amarri Cheeks
Amarri Cheeks Ай бұрын
Amarri Cheeks
Amarri Cheeks Ай бұрын
😢09😮😮😢🎉up🎉 11:35 op 11:36 🎉o😮😮😮🎉l😮😮o😮🎉o🎉🎉😊😮
Amarri Cheeks
Amarri Cheeks Ай бұрын
🎉 11:43 11:43 🎉ol
Leonid Fro
Leonid Fro Күн бұрын
His explanations are trivial, and answer to light bulb problem is absolutely wrong.
Thomas Külpmann
Thomas Külpmann 2 ай бұрын
I studied electronics. I learned about Maxwell and Poynting... And I passed the exam. But I never before brought this (and it has not even been mentioned in all the lessons) into a context with the flow of electricity, specifically with DC. However, having heard about the basic formulas and theorys it became clear very fast ("flash") :-) Thanks for this explanation here...😄
L Tam
L Tam 2 ай бұрын
He basically theoretical physcizied our asses. Did a thought experiment and made a prediction
Deleted Truths
Deleted Truths 4 күн бұрын
@L Tam what's the prediction
Trevon Scott
Trevon Scott 3 ай бұрын
This video should be mandatory curriculum for people trying to obtain Magnetic Particle Testing certificates. This explanation would have made the class so much easier.
Jon Taylor
Jon Taylor 3 ай бұрын
When I got mine in the 80's there was NO mention of anything remotely like this. And I did MagPart/NDI on Acft assemblies for years.
Andrew Ong
Andrew Ong 2 ай бұрын
Actually it's more of Conductivity Testing which is what this says all about.
Trevon Scott
Trevon Scott 2 ай бұрын
@Jon Taylor the explanation of the right hand rule and flow of current, where the field lies is specifically as well as rectification or the capabilities of DC vs AC is what I was referencing. And the theory of electricity helped my understand the why. I’m a very curious person and knowing the how or why helps me out. Maybe not in the field, but certainly for the written testing I took. I understand that this may have not helped everyone, but I had to get my certification online when I inspected Railcars in a repair facility. It was brutal because there was no way to ask questions. The test was literally a regurgitation of information. All memory. I feel like I would have had an easier time because if I didn’t remember the answer, I could have at least understood the theory enough to make a logical assumption. We only ever used Rectified AC with dry particles. Never told why…that was just a standard for our industry/company. Now I’ve got a better idea as to the why Edit: added more
Lester R. Ryan, MD
Lester R. Ryan, MD 2 ай бұрын
I must add that Magnetic Particle Testing certificates should be a prerequisite to get employment at janitorial jobs.
admanvothing 3 ай бұрын
I just want you to know that through several physics classes and after a decade of angrily not understanding how electrons flowing in a circle actually transmits energy, you have finally answered my question. Hallelujah, thank you for taking the time to actually explain the how instead of simply telling me to memorize equations
Martin 3 ай бұрын
i have more questions now
Tom Chapman
Tom Chapman 3 ай бұрын
Ima watch it again.
Noysam 3 ай бұрын
I watched this video a year ago, but I understood nothing because the only thing I learned in high school was that energy moves through the wire. One year later, after learning about electric and magnetic fields and induction, this video made way more sense
goudsnaar speler
goudsnaar speler 3 ай бұрын
bro same. I just passed my master course Advanced Electrodynamics. I even made calculations with Poynting vectors myself. And yet, this video completely blew my mind.
TAJ Dvl-Advocate
TAJ Dvl-Advocate Ай бұрын
Wow! I’m an old engineer that spent much of my career designing radar systems. While I knew that my first impulsive answer was likely wrong, it’s been a really long time since took a college E&M physics course and first learned about Maxwell’s equations and Poynting vectors. Too, no one explained it nearly as well as you. Thanks.
ElectroBOOM Жыл бұрын
Well well well, stepping into my territory, eh?! I shall make a video about this!!
Simon Жыл бұрын
Hey Buddy
Mahesh Prabhu
Mahesh Prabhu Жыл бұрын
Gauntlet thrown! I have my popcorn ready.
mango Жыл бұрын
من فن شمام😂😂😂 فارسیم نوشتم چون میدونم ایرانی هستین
Jonah Chitombo
Jonah Chitombo Жыл бұрын
I would love to see your take on this
SimplyNo Жыл бұрын
Sean Colgan
Sean Colgan 3 ай бұрын
So in theory, if we could use a box or device to block the magnetic and electrical fields the load wouldn’t work, in this case light wouldn’t turn on? Could we get a follow up video showing that? Also would be interesting to use iron fillings to show your theory in a working circuit. I’m an electrician and was never taught this thought process! This is why I love this field, always learning. Great video, keep up the great work.
marathonman 3 ай бұрын
The iron fillings distort the actual fields because they to give off a magnetic field themselves so the representation would not be correct. Yes of the fields were some how blocked zero would happen. Here's the thing though, the Eather permeates everything because it is 1,000 times smaller then the smallest atom.
Mark Lombard
Mark Lombard 3 ай бұрын
@marathonman so does this have something to do with Eather Theory cause it does remind me of it.
blutey 3 ай бұрын
Yes, would be interesting to put up some sort of physical barrier at 90 degrees to the wire and see what happens...
daviga1 3 ай бұрын
Great experimental thinking here. I believe you'll find that they are inseperable however. This video is somewhat misinformative. In transmitting energy, wires do indeed guide the transmission of power (that's why we use them) what they don't do is (fully) CONFINE it.
henry james
henry james 2 ай бұрын
@daviga1 "Never try to teach a pig to sing, it only frustrates you, and annoys the pig"(Isaac Asimov)
B F 3 ай бұрын
This is really cool. I always thought of it as water because that's what helped me pass a circuts class in college, but I've always been curious about magnetic fields and stuff, so this answer is cooler and therefore better.
MrMustangMan 3 ай бұрын
Rick MacDonald
Rick MacDonald 3 ай бұрын
Magnets; how do they work? I love that question is treated as idiotic but it’s actually a profoundly good and important and in fact difficult question lol.
Stefan Molnapor
Stefan Molnapor 3 ай бұрын
Same here
Ash _
Ash _ Ай бұрын
@Rick MacDonald You can only explain something in terms of something else which is bound to be true, axioms (set of things which are accepted as truth). In order to explain why a rubber band contracts, we explain it in terms of electrostatic attraction. In order to explain electrostatic attraction, you must know something more fundamental than electrostatic attraction in order to explain it. I hope you can see how this is a problem, there NEEDS to be something fundamental in order to explain ANYTHING. Electromagnetism just turns out to be THAT fundamental thing, you could go a little bit deeper if you know about theoretical physics but you still have to accept something as a fundamental truth of the universe in order to explain other things. (I heard this from Richard Feynman) If my answer to this question is incorrect, please let me know :)
Payman Ferdosali
Payman Ferdosali 26 күн бұрын
Thank you for the video and challenging the every day assumptions. I appreciate this 🎉. A couple of questions: Where and how did you prove that it takes 1/c? If you have done testing, where can I read more about the details of your test? How do we explain the impedance that happens in large conductors along with skin effect in AC, and the transient behavior in DC switching?
Blue Tube
Blue Tube 2 ай бұрын
Interesting, but the wires would already have fields propagated through them, because one end is connected to the battery (i.e. capacitance). What happens if you adjust the experiment, and use two switches, on each pole of the battery, closed simultaneously? Does it change anything?
Tyler Bird
Tyler Bird Ай бұрын
Probably not. The electrons dont care where the switch is, it only cares where electrons are flowing
Be Smart
Be Smart Жыл бұрын
I feel like a baby who just realized mom and dad don’t really disappear during peek-a-boo
Rick Morty
Rick Morty Жыл бұрын
Elaad Teuerstein
Elaad Teuerstein Жыл бұрын
It's light, Joe, but not as you know it! (Or thought you knew it)
Tarskybull Beme
Tarskybull Beme Жыл бұрын
okay but they still can't see me behind the ankle-high curtains
Nick Kanah
Nick Kanah Ай бұрын
I am not so good in physics so I have a question... So if we will remove isolation from a wire and put something iron on it (or even just near it) - this iron thing will magnetize after some time? But what I definitely learned thanks to that video is that if we put a lamp near a wire, it may light after a while. Actually, I've learned it experimentally before, but now I really understand why it happened!
PRIYA VARDHAN ChauhaN 25 күн бұрын
putting it nnear the wire will just turn it to power grid situation being air the bad conductor
Rangachari V
Rangachari V 5 күн бұрын
OMG, I am a poor student in science but exactly 2 days ago I was wondering how electricity travels in the wire, does it do like water through the pipe to be tapped by a switch. Your explanation is awesome. Now I am 65 and this knowledge may help me to understand Physics in a better way in my next Birth. Hats off to you Sir.
DHRUV 12 күн бұрын
This video literally changed 3 times and I have watched every time it gets better 👍
arthur k
arthur k Ай бұрын
I think, what actually matters, is the location of the switch. Think if you put the switch in the middle which is 0.75 * 10^8 meters away from battery and the light bulb, when you close the switch, you'll create a signal and it shall travel from the switch to the light bulb. Thus the bulb won't light up, until the signal reach the bulb which is at least 1/4s.
anurag maurya
anurag maurya 10 күн бұрын
I'm a student preparing for neet exam and my teacher had discussed this in Allen classroom lectures.... PG sir ☺️....
MattMGK Жыл бұрын
After watching this video I can confidently say I understand less about how electricity works than I did before.
Alan Wannemaker
Alan Wannemaker Жыл бұрын
Try opening your mind sometime ?
Jordan Moravenov
Jordan Moravenov Жыл бұрын
Yes, same for me. It is a new concept for me, so I am so glad about the video but unfortunatelly many questions raised that are not covered by the video...
Breakfast of Champions
Breakfast of Champions Жыл бұрын
Because it does touch on a more fundamental 'weirdness' (not really) about the universe that you didn't know about before.
Edward Coulter
Edward Coulter Жыл бұрын
@Alan Wannemaker But what if the information in this presentation is in error? How does that profit an individual to spend a lot of time and mental energy trying to understand something that may not be true. It may be like global warming, all garbage but we still won't quit talking about it.
A B Жыл бұрын
Because he's lying. He's using misleading editing with the professors to try to make it sound like he's saying something counterintuitive. He's cheating the viewer.
Unbare Ability
Unbare Ability 3 ай бұрын
Definitely expected a different answer - as many years ago I plugged my phone in to top-up the charge but my battery actually reduced! Taking my charge backwards instead of increasing like it is meant to do! I can't remember what phone I was using at the time but I'm sure it happened more than once from that device. But not since then. It's true, I plugged my phone in to charge and watched it count backwards to depletion! Pretty strange!
shurlocksam86 3 ай бұрын
Did you have an iPhone?
JRH tv
JRH tv 2 ай бұрын
Something shorted to ground.
False Progress
False Progress 3 ай бұрын
<a href="#" class="seekto" data-time="647">10:47</a> This must affect offshore wind projects that depend on long undersea cables, especially if you put them far enough out to not be eyesores from shore (usually over 30 miles). It shows that the more local an energy source is, the better.
daviga1 3 ай бұрын
Not really. 1 : More jacketing between electrical element and support strands will diminish the effect. 2: Power transmission doesn't have the same constraints as communication cabling 3: Glass fiber (among other materials) is great for structural support and won't affect your cable that way. Onshore winds are usually weaker and more variable than offshore. The best place to get energy is where it is abundant, adjusted by the cost of transporting it to its destination. Transmission losses are pretty low these days however.
Fred Gilbert
Fred Gilbert 2 ай бұрын
Wow…this is going to take a while to get my head around. I’m not an electrician but I did take a practical electronics course in grade school. At that time they used the water comparison.
booboo 3 ай бұрын
This is a great video, thanks for making it! What if the lamp were in a sealed room? Assuming only the conductors pass through the walls of the room into the lamp how would the energy get their to power the lamp? This is going to keep me awake at night!
IVAN F. SANTOS 2 ай бұрын
Great question, .... 😀great video..... unfortunately it is also my question. Please someone clarify....
LordSeidon Ай бұрын
Do you realize that electrical energy is a product of voltage and current? For any work to be done on the bulb, you need two things, voltage, and current. A conductor supplies these two properties. Electrical energy cannot be blocked, it can only be stopped if you cut the conductor. But as long as there is voltage and current in a conductor energy will flow.
antonio c
antonio c 11 күн бұрын
Basically you got it. Be sure that the lamp will work. Though one can argue that the room is not sealed where the cable passes through the wall.... However you got it. It it true that current flows in cables. The rest is matter of PoV
Robert Hermosillo
Robert Hermosillo 2 ай бұрын
I've watched this video several times trying to wrap my brain around it. If this hypothesis is true, then , using your setup with the light bulb, you should be able to disrupt the flow of energy from battery to bulb by placing a large magnetic field/shield between the battery and bulb.
AT Жыл бұрын
The fundamental law of physics: electricity disappear if you stop paying bills.
Gigachad Жыл бұрын
No its the laws of capitalism that govern the energy flow
Zack Carl
Zack Carl Жыл бұрын
Nikola Tesla said energy can be free , but are we willing to
millieo Жыл бұрын
Piece D
Piece D Жыл бұрын
No You can create electricity if you want Many still it to :)
Yuri Desideri
Yuri Desideri Жыл бұрын
Unless you own a solar panel
Sam Anderson
Sam Anderson 28 күн бұрын
There’s Immense Happiness watching this video ,knowing how universe actually works and understanding every bit of it Answering those baffling questions Thanks a ton @ veriritasium
Saqib Khan
Saqib Khan 2 ай бұрын
I would highly recommend “story of electricity” by Jim Al-Khalili to understand the whole concept of electricity, how it was first discovered and how over time countless other technologies were developed by the discovery of electricity
Edwin Bradford
Edwin Bradford 3 ай бұрын
Phenomenal explanation, one of the best I've ever seen and made me exclaim out aloud more than once.
Exotic Spy Travel
Exotic Spy Travel 3 ай бұрын
Too bad it's a stupid explanation. Just think a bit: if the electrical energy is passing only around the wire, how it can ever reach the bulb filament and make it shine? The bulk filament is also a wire and according to this stupid clip, the electrical energy should not touch it.
At the Symposium
At the Symposium 2 ай бұрын
@Exotic Spy Travel Ya, I believe the purpose of the video was to acknowledge the role and property of electromagnetism, but he never seems to realize where his emphasis falls apart. Namely, if it was just the fields around the wire, why would the wires need to be connected to the device. We could just lay electrical lines in proximity to things that we wanted to work for that matter. Also, it is very common for humans to simplify explanations in heed of making the understanding of said concept more intuitive. Yes, the analogy often used for electricity that it flows like water bugs me a bit too but it helps for practical understanding.
Hassan Gafar Omotoba
Hassan Gafar Omotoba 10 күн бұрын
This is absolutely sensible and it can easily be understood when when you look at while a lot of PCB fails today, Rick Hartley and Dan beeker already gave something about this. It's all about the space, energy travels in space not the wire, but follow the part of least impedance the wire only serve as a wave guide.
GhibliOmatiC 2 ай бұрын
I thought I understood how current flowed in a circuit... I've been lied to in school. The actual mechanism is absolutely fascinating.
antonio c
antonio c 2 ай бұрын
The success of the clip is just due to switching the subject... Sometimes is electrons, sometimes current, sometimes energy. I think you were told the true about the mechanism for which current flows in a circuit. Energy flow might be represented in this way (perhaps better, not sure) which is familiar to those with somewhat physics education. We can use Poynting vector and fields to describe how energy goes. Yet you cannot split water (2H20 - > 2 H2 + O2) without an effective flow of electrons. This should clear the situation.
Alonso B
Alonso B Ай бұрын
@antonio c You do in fact split water without outside electrons actually getting in. It just needs the energy from the electromagnetic fields to sort of decouple the electrons from the water molecules, perhaps, but the whole container itself IS neutral and stays neutral. I can't think of a case where you need to electrons to physically reach somewhere. It's all in the field, made because the electrons are moving ever so slightly, at least in DC ig.. This is college level chemistry, and I'm not sure how to simplify this stuff in a comment section. But... I tried.
INV_Vision 29 күн бұрын
An explanation why most electrical devices only work with DC current would be interesting now! Probably because a lot of components have some kind of diodes built into them and therefore no electromagnetic fields can build up when the current vector points in the “wrong direction“…🤔
Brock Jensen
Brock Jensen 7 ай бұрын
Of course I find this video now… around 6 months ago I got into a small debate with my electrical engineering professor over a topic very similar to this. Everyone in the class seemed to be on the professors side which I guess makes sense but then the following week our professor walks into class and tells me he thought about what I was asking and had looked into it. He walked up to the board and showed some of the similar stuff you did in this video and proclaimed I had actually been correct and my original question that countered his previous discussion he admitted to the class he was in fact wrong. This was the first time in my life I had such a crystallized idea of what someone that was truly intelligent acted like. He wasn’t upset, frustrated or hurt that his initial statement was wrong because he didn’t care about being right, he cared about the truth. I know it sounds corny to say seeing someone look for confirmation instead of affirmation changed my outlook on life but it really did. Never before had I seen some so openly question their very own view and search for the truth rather than search for what backs up their view or idea. Great video, as always
Paul Goss
Paul Goss 7 ай бұрын
Epiphanies can be painful, but we make them so. Your professor is clearly a devout scientist! Congrats to you both!!
Cami 7 ай бұрын
That’s a great story and lesson! ❤
ESK Jazz
ESK Jazz 7 ай бұрын
wanting to know the truth and rethinking you own knowledge, just to find out you've been wrong is a true sign of high intelligence. 👏👏👏 thinking that one is always right, on the other hand, is not
Kev Brand
Kev Brand 7 ай бұрын
Reminds of when I was in 8th grade I argued with my elective science teacher about bullets firing in space his argument was based on the lack of oxygen and I knew that didnt matter since they can fire under water which doesn't have usable oxygen for combustion. I also liked guns growing up and its simple firearms knowledge that the use of self oxidizing smokeless propellants was a huge leap in their development. He reacted the opposite of your professor when we googled it and I was proven right.
Kiki Jewell
Kiki Jewell 7 ай бұрын
"Power and Logic are not related." (-me) People concerned with logic aren't concerned when they're wrong, but people use _use logic_ to wield power get upset when someone else is right - their power is tied up in being right. (Note: that's the core to mansplaining too - explaining to assert dominance, not to bring equality of knowledge.)
alex smith
alex smith Ай бұрын
Well explained. Electricity is basically a mix of electron flow and magnetism that energizes the conductors.
Katherine Casey
Katherine Casey 3 ай бұрын
I used to think that electrons flowed through the wires, but I eventually realized that that didn't make sense. However, I had no other explanation. This video is hard to follow, even though I'm currently studying physics/electricity, but it does give me a better idea of what is going on.
Volty De Qua
Volty De Qua 3 ай бұрын
Wonderful comment. It remembers me how genuine were the people long ago. I was trying to explain how the tv's work, but many of them used to answer something like "yes, yes, but how can be so much / people be packed inside". This video could be difficult to follow for those expecting that it brings breakthrough answers - since 'packed' in a smart way, with millions of views, but imho it's only entertainment disguised as sci divulgation, and the sci-quality is inversely proportional to the number of viewers ("the impressed masses" that pretend to have understood) . I would say yet another idea about what +else+ +could+ be going on. There's also the electrical conductivity aspect. There's the fact that the telegraph cable example is wrong since it doesn't give proofs / measures. Btw, hoping to not annoy, in the present, as in the past, too many things given for granted. There's a playful saying, in plebs style, "It's all fault (of all the problems of today's world - to be intended) of those who invented the atoms". :)
Paul Frederick
Paul Frederick 3 ай бұрын
If electrons don't flow then we can just drop the concept of current.
Volty De Qua
Volty De Qua 3 ай бұрын
@Paul Frederick «If electrons don't flow then we can just drop the concept of current.» ---- The only certainty, out of common sense, is that something flows. So the current is there, electrons, or whatever else. Could be that it cannot be described, in suitable terms for our brains limited by the need of our space & matter analogies. To understand how much the science is impacting our vulgar world vs how much our vulgar world is impacting, requires knowledge of scientific and technological history, and quite a deep thinking. Or, in other words, is it the science to drive the achievements, or is it there to explain achievements that happened, and would happen again, without all that theory? Imho we need some epistemological genuine thinking paying attention to not get lost in abstract and sterile philosophy recitals. etc etc.
Volty De Qua
Volty De Qua 3 ай бұрын
Dear Katherine, do not know if it could help, try to think in terms of Shakespeare's "What's in a name", then pass to "What's in a matter that isn't matter", and "What's in a energy". Be wary of those that pretend to know too much what's down there, in the too small to be seen or measured.
Paul Frederick
Paul Frederick 3 ай бұрын
@Volty De Qua electrons don't flow like water unless they are water. But the hydraulic analogy can still be useful to visualize electricity. Just not all the time. It's how a lot of competent mechanics view electricity and it serves them well enough. So I won't quickly dismiss it myself.
Michael Beckerman
Michael Beckerman 22 күн бұрын
Can I get an informed opinion on the Skin Effect please when it comes to audio? Does this really have the ability to impact the performance/propagation of an audio signal being transmitted down a cable? I've heard that it does, but at most it only has about a 3% effect on the signal, if that.
Kristian Dior
Kristian Dior 2 ай бұрын
you are a genius for the way you teach us this. Thank you, I have learnt so much from this channel. Everyone who watches this please pay attention, this is very intelligent information.
Tiny Camper Concert
Tiny Camper Concert Ай бұрын
Great video and very interesting. I have a question though: how can we explain the wireless energy transfer using this principle where no wire/conductor is involved? (i.e. like wireless charging technology transferring energy through air based on magnetic field)
Fluo 27 күн бұрын
Wireless charging is mainly EM induction
SparkyPete93G 10 ай бұрын
I'm an electrician from the UK. This theory can be proven by holding a florescent tube near a power line. It will glow. My family didn't believe me so I showed them. So glad you explained this in a way they understands fully. Thankyou. Very clever.
Shiraishi Chan
Shiraishi Chan 10 ай бұрын
A total physics noob here, Im sorry if this is a really dumb question: But if a florescent tube can glow because it gets energy from the power line, why dont we get electrocuted just by standing near a power line?
Bad Guy
Bad Guy 10 ай бұрын
@Shiraishi Chan same doubt 🧐
SparkyPete93G 10 ай бұрын
@Shiraishi Chan I feel its all about distance and what you are wearing. I'm sure if you got close enough with no clothing and a direct line to ground. You may experience ark jumping. Its a very good question 🤔
Adept of all
Adept of all 10 ай бұрын
@Shiraishi Chan hey EM waves not harm us ( like light not hurt you when it falls / passes through you) here energy is transferred by EM waves from the source to the electrical device which receive and convert to their known energy ( electrical) When you keep a fluorescent bulb near it takes those energy which was carried by em waves Same concept using in a current detector in a wire , we actually detect the em waves around wire which have more intensity near it
Adept of all
Adept of all 10 ай бұрын
There is a difference between holding a power wire and stands near it
Arthur Zettel
Arthur Zettel 3 ай бұрын
It's really interesting. The yellow lines propagating from the battery to the light bulb are sort of like the Earth's magnetic field to the moon. I think this is really cool.
Those Maxwell equations mantioned at the beginning are actually vectorised reductions of his 12 original equations. The work was done by Heaviside mentioned later on. Interesting that it's fields that are claimed to carry the energy. Lorentz's special relaativity which came 4 years before Einstein's and passes all the same tests was rejected because he postulated an ether, which in my opinon is in fact a field and of course everyone accepts the Higgs field nowadays. Really once you drill down it bcomes clear that a large amound of what we are told is in fact wrong! Great video BTW.
Serge Kannon
Serge Kannon Ай бұрын
Mr. Veritasium, This is great! I love your videos. I see here that the switch and the power supply are right next to each other. What would happen if the switch stayed where it is, but the battery was placed 300,000 km away? Is the speed at which the light turns on measured from the switch or from the power supply?
Harley Woods
Harley Woods 17 күн бұрын
From the power supply
Pete Moore
Pete Moore 9 күн бұрын
It’s refreshing to see somebody that is open to friendly debate. I can understand scientists being competitive but they never killed one another.
Mark Moser
Mark Moser 2 ай бұрын
You should have added in the demonstration to test the circuit with a meter after hitting the breaker, simple and easily taken for granted, but would be important for someone who doesnt do any electric work. Otherwise very informative
Eric L Michelsen
Eric L Michelsen Жыл бұрын
I teach physics at the University of California, San Diego, including this very topic. Within an hour of watching this, I set up the experiment, and got the result. I have photographs of the experimental setup, and of the oscilloscope traces. I discussed the results at length with a physics professor friend, and we agree on the explanation. In fact, the load gets (nearly) the full voltage (almost) immediately; there is no (visible) ramp-up time, nor delay through the long wires (delay < 10 ns). This is fully consistent with transmission line theory that is well established for about a century. Dr. Muller's Veritasium series is great, but in this case, there are several claims that are incorrect, or at least misleading. There are many subtleties, and I cannot do them justice in a comment. I would enjoy talking with Dr. Muller to clear these up. For reference, I have a BS in Electrical Engineering, a PhD in physics, and I am author of "Quirky Quantum Concepts", an upper-division/graduate quantum mechanics text supplement. This is my first KZhome comment ever. Update: I love the Veritasium series, and I have learned a lot from it. To respond to some replies: I chose the simplest case, which I think illustrates the point that power can reach the load without going the whole length of the "wings." The analysis link below the video covers the more-complicated case. My "wings" are 50' hardware store extension cords. My propagation test confirms that coiling them doesn't matter, as expected. My analysis is fully transient, and the circuit transits to steady-state DC over time. Resistance can safely be approximated as zero, but inductance and capacitance cannot, as expected by theory. My load is 270 ohm, roughly the on-resistance of a 50 W incandescent bulb. The characteristic impedance Z ~53 ohm, which is substantially less than the load; that's what's needed for the simple case of near full response nearly immediately (the load is _not_ matched to Z). In this case, the wing capacitance dominates the behavior. Consolidating my previous reply: Examples of subtleties: Do two electrons repel each other? (a) Most people would say yes, and I agree. But one could argue (b) No, one electron creates an electric field, and that field pushes on the other electron. This is also correct; it's slightly more detailed, and from a somewhat different viewpoint, but (a) is still correct, as well. But (c) In calculating the force of (b), we use only the E-field from one electron, even though we know both produce E-fields. To use the full E-field, we have to compute force with the Maxwell stress tensor; this is also correct. There are multiple correct views one can take. The video's chain analogy is very good, and correct. Separately, a few replies have hit on the most-direct (IMO) explanation: the capacitance in the wires provides an immediate, physically short path for the electricity to reach the load. The path of current changes over time. Your gut might tell you that the capacitance is too small, but a quantitative transient analysis using standard circuit theory matches the experiment. Special Relativity still stands. More subtleties: characteristic impedance, etc. I do similar demonstrations in class, so I happen to have all the equipment and experience ready to go.
R. Gart
R. Gart Жыл бұрын
When the first comment is the best comment.
Tim Moles
Tim Moles Жыл бұрын
You know the earth is flat.
James Elliott
James Elliott Жыл бұрын
@Tim Moles - 😂 that's the exact right thing to say when the scientific jargon resembles an extraterrestrial language.
zafurchio Жыл бұрын
So...why do we use wires? Couldn't we do without wires in theory, to transmit energy? Basically it needs nothing in between the switch and the bulb, why does he use the wire if it really worked like he explained in the video...?
Peter Gazdik
Peter Gazdik Жыл бұрын
No delay? Are you saying information travels faster than light, and that you've measured it?
Happy Home Projects
Happy Home Projects 3 ай бұрын
I appreciate this video, thank you for the work you do and helping to move us forward.
Hugh Leyton
Hugh Leyton 3 ай бұрын
He has moved people backwards, because he is Wrong.. . Electrical power, particular DC from a battery does NOT travel in the fields, but current inside the wire.
Happy Home Projects
Happy Home Projects 3 ай бұрын
@Hugh Leyton The wire is electrics creating the field that travels inside and outside the wire. A transformer is proof that the flow isn't limited to the wire connection but it's induced by the electrification of the wire. This is why sensitive equipment requires shielded wiring or braided pairs.
Happy Home Projects
Happy Home Projects 3 ай бұрын
@Hugh Leyton Have you ever heard not to cross wires perpendicular to each other, this is due to induction from the electromagnetic field that's generated by electrifying a circuit. I was originally taught the lumped element model for electrical theory when I was going to school to become ASE qualified. But some things didn't fully make sense, and now those questions are answered because the picture is more complete. He is describing the totality of the electromagnetic field and how it works. What was previously taught was the simplified version known as the lumped element model. His findings don't change the information that we know, but rather add to it. Giving us some more complete picture as I stated.
Hugh Leyton
Hugh Leyton 3 ай бұрын
But it is WRONG. . The electrical energy does travel INSIDE the Wire, not by external fields, that is simply very wrong.. . . You have been had.
Hugh Leyton
Hugh Leyton 3 ай бұрын
@Happy Home Projects Electrical Current, that is the moving Electrons INSIDE the wire will produce a circulating Magnetic field, which does not stretch very far, just mm. . . . . That is why the wires in Transformers are either very close together, or wrapped around a common Core. . . . But that is AC not DC. . . . Sensitive equipment may require shielding from high frequency signals and noise, NOT DC
Faisal Alqawsi
Faisal Alqawsi Ай бұрын
Thank you for this nice video . Now I think we can just point a battery toward a light bulb and it will light and drop the wire as long as conductor's free electrons has no job in delevering the energy. Morevere, if EM wave need guide we can use plastic or rubber instead of conducing wires . Should this worked I would believe your thought .
Phil A
Phil A 2 ай бұрын
Thank you. I love science and all things science. I have never understood this about electricity until this video. 😃
Buddy Rehd
Buddy Rehd 2 ай бұрын
My mind is blown! Absolutely interesting. Makes me ponder what all this does to the human body and nature in the path…. Interesting
Pen and Paper Science
Pen and Paper Science Жыл бұрын
The production quality has become insane! You're an inspiration to all us science communicators! Keep it up! :)
Bad Astra
Bad Astra Жыл бұрын
Tommy Gaming 🅥 Agreed - this channel is my inspiration for what I'd like my videos to become.
Ryan Lush
Ryan Lush Жыл бұрын
Do you have any idea what kind of money can be made on KZhome?
Pen and Paper Science
Pen and Paper Science Жыл бұрын
@Ryan Lush Yeah I do, but still you need to build that business up from the ground. And when there, put in the effort to reinvest that money into high quality production :)
Lee Wilkinson
Lee Wilkinson 3 ай бұрын
I wonder if in your hypothetical model, would vaccumn effect the energy vector?
Arya Asya
Arya Asya 3 ай бұрын
Thanks for the video. It is amazing explanation. I still have not got it 100% so need to re-watch several times.
heavenz Kurs
heavenz Kurs 2 ай бұрын
finally some decent science information. More on Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Fields please
Eric Escobar
Eric Escobar 3 ай бұрын
very very interesting! I wonder if there would be a delay if the bulb was placed at the far end of the lines, away from the battery source?
Paul Frederick
Paul Frederick 3 ай бұрын
If there was no delay then there'd be no such thing as network latency.
Aditya Shah
Aditya Shah 3 ай бұрын
Great effort. However, I still have a difficult time to understand how we get shocked if we touch a live wire if the electricity is not by transmitted through wires? Plus, is it then ok to say that if we physically don't connect any appliances ( bulb etc.) But have close enough connections we still get it turned on ? Please try to answer as I am curious. Once again love your work.
Tnpcook 2 ай бұрын
Those are a fun few questions. Here's how I understand it, hopefully someone smarter than me can pitch in. At the top of it, we need to separate 'shock' from 'fields' and 'electricity'. There are a bunch of components to shocks, since they are a single perception of many interactions. (you can get burned by electricity without feeling a shock!) There are a couple things that go on, there's electro-motive(moving electrons) forces, and fields. I'm gonna mostly go after the first, electro-motives. TL;DR, You've created a path that will guide (conduct!) electrons, electrons are already on this path and they will start to move too. This motion can cause problems, even before the external electrons move over in appeciable amounts. A little more elaborated- separate a shock into a few parts. Firstly, a shock isn't exclusively something that 'enters' you at a start point. It begins when there is an arrangement of a pathway (sometimes regrettably through us, sometimes it's already there but there isn't enough voltage to make it viable at its' resistance). If there is a sufficient path, it will become a 'wire'. You'll have a route through the body that guides (conducts!) electrons. When you create that situation and a pathway through the body becomes the 'new wire', the electrons that are ALREADY there will begin to move as well. This is how an alternating current with a back and forth motion can cause damage despite the electron motion not progressing; by invoking this same motion on the electrons on this improvised 'wire'/path through a person. This is where the nasty part starts, if enough electrons are moving (a big current), they can polarize/denature/etc SCREW WITH nerve function, which is important to things like our heart. This is a separate problem from fields, which we're actually pretty resistant to in comparison.
ltjgambrose Жыл бұрын
Speaking as an electrical engineer, electricity is the closest thing in to magic that everyday people deal with. I deal with conceptualizing electricity and electrical components every day, and you're kind of forced to think of amperes like your chain analogy, voltage like water pressure, transformers like gear boxes, etc. But you have to keep in the back of your mind the whole time "but it's not water mains or a gearbox, it's electricity". It's simple up close but a whole other different thing when you try to think of the whole power grid at once. My advice to laypeople? Learn what you can, and marvel at the physics of electricity with me! ...But call a professional if you need to wire a car charger into your garage.
NUKE Жыл бұрын
nathan87 Жыл бұрын
I can almost guarantee that the electrician who wires your car charger doesn't understand much of this either >
Uhhhhh Жыл бұрын
@nathan87 electrician here; we’re not labourers or handymen, we’re trained in electrical theory and hold technical qualifications. We may end up slightly dirty at the end of a work day but we’re well paid and quite knowledgable 😊
Alex Manchester
Alex Manchester Жыл бұрын
I am exactly the kind of person the wise man was referring to when he said "A little knowledge is a dangerous thing". I'm exactly the kind of person who would learn the basics and immediately think they could DIY their own car charger, lol. This video, and indeed this comment, are good reminders that I don't know ANYTHING about how electricity works, no matter how many cool analogies I know.
crezy1huurcompeletiens Жыл бұрын
@nathan87 But he will certainly be aware of the dangers evolved with working with electricity! As the OP already quoted, electricity comes pretty close to magic: you can't hear/smell/see it, but it can kill you quite easily.
Tnpcook 2 ай бұрын
It's exciting that you've managed to sensationalize this kind of knowledge!
antonio c
antonio c 2 ай бұрын
Surprising, I'd say
Calkimchi 26 күн бұрын
@antonio c You could say that he's brought new energy to this field
Arda Başar
Arda Başar Ай бұрын
And this is the way to do ads and product placement. Thank you for it, coming from a person who hates most ads. Non-intrusive, explicit, not distractive or ignorantly manipulative, yet sufficiently in place as you use those in the video, and who wonders what they are, can find out in the end.
Kesava Rao Kolluri
Kesava Rao Kolluri 2 ай бұрын
After watching this Vedio I understood the answer toone question that was I asked in one of the interviews The question was "what happens to the electrons at the place Where a current carrying conductor was cut with a knife while carrying current. Now I know the right answer. Thanks for this most interesting and logical concept of flow of current in an electric conductor.
Andreww Sloane
Andreww Sloane 2 ай бұрын
This really shakes up my own personal understanding of electricity and how it works. I think that electricity is a triad of functioning flows of which at its core importance is the potential difference in electrons. What is an electron. The difference is life and death. Light and darkness. Hot and cold.
Sam Elliott
Sam Elliott 2 ай бұрын
If you broke the circuit at the far end, 1 light second away from the light/power source, at the exact same moment (assuming 'moment' exists for this thought experiment), would the lightbulb still light up until the information of the circuit break reaches it? Or would the information of the circuit break reach the electric field at the power source immediately?
Alonso B
Alonso B Ай бұрын
It would "light up" (slightly) anyway, but after the information gets there it would turn off. Information cannot travel faster than light after all. See the newer video Veritasium made on the topic.
TechPassion Жыл бұрын
I think the best part of this video isn't just the information it presents, but also the conversation it sparks in the comments! People asking questions, people trying to understand what's being said, and even people providing counter-arguments in certain scenarios where what Derek explains doesn't seem to match up. I think having civil discussions helps a ton, thanks Derek + the Veritasium community! This video and the comment section is genuinely interesting to go through
markmd9 Жыл бұрын
People just figured out that he is wrong 🙂
D P Жыл бұрын
@markmd9 where's your evidence?
Kanglar Жыл бұрын
I think he is being somewhat intentionally deceptive/vague in the video on purpose to cause this :P He's not wrong, it's just a weird perspective.
zekicay Жыл бұрын
@markmd9 He is partially correct and partially wrong. There will be some small energy transfer between the bulb and the battery in 1/c but the bulk will happen after more than 1s.
Draakie100 3 ай бұрын
I often ask myself how much science suffers from confirmation bias. Great upload....THANKS !!! I wish everybody a positive life 🍄🌏👁😀
Objective: Fly
Objective: Fly 2 ай бұрын
Great video but I have a question. When the basic circuit is connected <a href="#" class="seekto" data-time="374">6:14</a> battery´s electric field that is neccesary for the energy being send through space is extended through the circuit at the speed of light. So in theory you have to wait for the field to extend before you recieve energy right? That would mean even if you have battery and light bulb next to each other you have to wait for electric field to extend through the circuit (Wouldn´t the answer to your question be 1 second?)
Kowjja 15 күн бұрын
I wish we were taught this in physics class
LadyLeasara 3 ай бұрын
Interesting! So the motion of electrons in the cable is more like cilia in the lungs expelling objects, or a millipede's legs passing along grains of sand, or maybe a sweep rowing crew pulling a fancy maneuver. I am often attracted to your videos, but this one really sparked my imagination, thanks!
Paul Frederick
Paul Frederick 3 ай бұрын
It's like those balls on string desk toys, a Newton's cradle. You swing one and the other on the other end swings away. Like charges repel and opposites attract. Electricity always wants to seek an equilibrium state. That's why positive charges go to ground. But electrons are actually negatively charged. So conventional current is backwards from what's really going on. We need to make it all as confusing as possible after all.
C G 3 ай бұрын
could someone explain how this interacts w' more than one object, for example instead of just one light globe, add a resistor linked in with 2 or 3 light globes and say a speaker. i see how it works and it makes sense I'm just having issues visualising it w' multiple objects in the circuit. thanks for the vid tho really usful, i may only be doing a level 2 in electronics but it still fun to dive a little deeper sometimes :)
John Chessant
John Chessant Жыл бұрын
The part about AC was mindblowing. The Poynting vector is S = E x B but if both E and B are reversed, then S = (-E) x (-B) so the energy flow stays the same!
Francisco Power
Francisco Power Жыл бұрын
For me, that was one of the only parts where I was like "oh, yeah, I know this one!" ahahah! Everything else was mind-blowing!
bloocheez3 Жыл бұрын
The visualation was the only why I would have understood that concept. Seeing the diagram, I immediately recognized it as just rotating the circuit along the axis. People who can look at numbers and gleen the same information are wizards as far as I'm concerned.
Eric Dugal
Eric Dugal Жыл бұрын
I absolutely read SEX the first time I saw your comment. Had to do a double take, lol.
Julien Paradis
Julien Paradis Жыл бұрын
Walid Жыл бұрын
@Francisco Power same lmao, I'm still shocked for everything else, I guess I have to watch the video a few more time
Random Angel
Random Angel 3 ай бұрын
I think it was My Dad’s high school experiment or perhaps college in the 50’s as a electrical engineer to light up a light bulb by winding copper around a long six foot diameter drain pipe if I remember correctly it was like 50 feet long . He then placed the drain pipe on the ground under those very tall high tension electrical towers . The light bulb lit up . He told me that anyone who claims they understand electricity is wrong . There exist phenomena we still don’t understand about electricity .
Allan Nielsen
Allan Nielsen 2 ай бұрын
This is a very interesting. As a HiFi Enthusiast some of the thing I hear about cables suddenly make sense. Since no electrons are transferred it must happen in the electric field. But if I connect a Current Clamp over both wires. Then I won’t measure anything. The magnetic field created by the electrons in both wires will cancel itself out. What am I missing?
sanjeev shukla
sanjeev shukla 3 ай бұрын
So if we cut the wire somewhere in between, do you think bulb will still turn on? Just curious if it’s electric and magnetic field around then a small cut shouldn’t matter as you suggested as well.
daviga1 3 ай бұрын
Love the question. if the gap is small enough or the voltage high enough you may see sparks - the symptom of energy jumping that gap. a continuous spark gets called an arc. needless to say, it will impede how much power makes it to the bulb, and may damage things as well.
antonio c
antonio c 2 ай бұрын
As daviga1 said an arc can form. Effectively and ultimately a flow of electrons........
Joseph Jon Zen
Joseph Jon Zen 3 ай бұрын
This is a very late question, but what about insulation? Does the insulated line limit the surrounding flux of electromagnetic energy? Does insulation limit the energy to limited area surrounding the wire itself?
milesmiles68 Ай бұрын
A follow-up experiment should change the distance between the battery and the bulb and plot the time it takes for the bulb to light up as a function of that distance.
Backlash Жыл бұрын
WOW! I'm 80 years old. Started learning electronics in the Army in 1959. We were taught the "Right Hand Rule" in the study of inductors and transformers. Although we knew about the magnetic field around conductors we never applied that knowledge like this. Thank you for teaching an old man a new trick.
『AE』Anarchist Alexcían Empire 《𝙃𝙋》
『AE』Anarchist Alexcían Empire 《𝙃𝙋》 Жыл бұрын
Abhinav Жыл бұрын
Wow u still study Great grandpa ji🙏
Backlash Жыл бұрын
@Abhinav Thank you. I love electricity in all forms. Except, of course, the CHAIR!
superChinmayPlays Жыл бұрын
@Backlash do chairs really exist though
O Wood
O Wood 3 ай бұрын
A coupe of things I don’t understand: if electricity creates a kind of ‘aura’ around the wire, why are cables insulated? Presumably, this doesn’t actually insulate the electrical charge. So is it there to stop other types of signal (radio waves?) from interfering with the signal? Secondly, what about circuits scored into silicon wafers? In this case, the signal must travel via elections due to the small size of the signal path? Or do circuits like this create electromagnetic auras of their own?
Josh Buhl
Josh Buhl 2 ай бұрын
I believe the bit about the Energy being in the fields, but if the 1/c answer is correct and hence the field can propagate straight through space from the battery to the bulb without having to go along the (long) wire, then this begs the question as to why the wire is necessary. You should also be able to set up a sort of „quantum erasure“ type experiment in which at the far end of the long wing loop the wire is cut through after the light bulb lights up, but before the information that the wire is no longer connected could travel or be seen at the bulb. So what happens if you connect the switch and then severe the loop at the far end at a time t 1/c< t < 1s? And when would the bulb extinguish? If it extinguishes in time less than 1second then you are successfully transmitting the information as to whether the wire is severed faster than light. you could use this to make a faster than light morse-code transmitter. Please rebutt.
pathung2002 2 ай бұрын
It's intriguing and counter-intuitive. What if we place the light bulb inside a box shielding all EM waves?
Byarne Schwab
Byarne Schwab 2 ай бұрын
Dang. Can't say I ever knew or even heard about that. Is this also the reason why there are so many new health problems that are acclaimed to come from Electricity? Or are those more likely to be caused by Radio waves and whatever Bluetooth and Data uses?
Anders Wraae
Anders Wraae Жыл бұрын
At the end of a very intese physics course and right after the exams, our teacher ended it by telling us that everything we had just learned about the flow of energy in an electric system was most likely wrong and mentioned something about energy not passing through the cables. Now I finally know what he meant. Thank you 😅🙇
RocketPig Жыл бұрын
What are the cables for then?
Adam Murphy
Adam Murphy Жыл бұрын
@RocketPig I might be wrong, but I think they are essentially allowing the magnetic field to form properly in the loop configuration and essentially becomes the structure the fields will form around. So for example, without the cable, you can't turn on a battery or switch and just power your devices, it needs a bridge to stabilize around and focus it's energy into. But maybe I am flat wrong, but this is how I am kinda understanding it
JorgeForge Жыл бұрын
@RocketPig I believe they are to transmit those fields to your home, otherwise they'd disperse. I'm actually dumbfolded by what I just learned.
Mythril Shotgun
Mythril Shotgun Жыл бұрын
I do remember thinking it was weird that a ring voltometer could work at all, If the coating of wires was a good enough insulator to protect me, why would a voltometer work at all? I won't pretend I've fully grasped the info in this video, but it does help me realize the importance of the field itself.
Vigilant Cosmic Penguin
Vigilant Cosmic Penguin Жыл бұрын
A teacher saying everything they just taught you was wrong is such a baller move, honestly. That's how you keep people curious.
D Mishra Music
D Mishra Music 7 күн бұрын
Your video is excellent thank you, You're a great teacher
Amer Douleh
Amer Douleh 2 күн бұрын
this question is always coming to my mind, and never I can find a satisfied answer ... Thank you so much
Joseph Spear
Joseph Spear 2 ай бұрын
Subscribed. You're a gifted orator. Great stuff.
domdog111 Ай бұрын
Such a well done video that I listened to the whole ad at the end. I dislike ads but so appreciated the information.
Ralph Woodin
Ralph Woodin 3 ай бұрын
Very good info. I worked in the electronics/semiconductor field all my life, and confess that I always thought of it as flowing through the wire, or on the surface of the wire, when I gave it any thought at all. Of course, inductance in transformer coils are kind of a heads up that energy in transferred through the EM field in space, not wires. I suppose the wires could be thought of as the necessary scaffolding for the EM field to propagate and transfer energy.
Exotic Spy Travel
Exotic Spy Travel 3 ай бұрын
I would be ashamed to mention I have experience in electronics and fully agree with what is said in the clip. "Of course, inductance in transformer coils are kind of a heads up that energy in transferred through the EM field in space, not wires." You're missing the big picture. Think about the transformer example: - an AC power source generates an AC electric field; - the AC electric field pushes/pulls electrons inside the primary coil of the transformer; - the flow of electrons in the primary coil creates an AC electromagnetic field (and other effects, e.g. heat); - the AC electromagnetic field pushes/pulls the electrons inside the surrounding coils, including of course the secondary coil; - if we connect some kind of electric load on the secondary coil, then we can say we have a transfer of energy through EM. However, that energy is not coming over the air directly from the power source. It is ALWAYS coming through the flow of electrons. "... and confess that I always thought of it as flowing through the wire, or on the surface of the wire." If all the energy is transferred through the space outside the wire then why high power transformers use thick wire and small-power ones use thin wire? If the electrical energy is not traveling inside the wire then why the bulb filament (which is a wire) gets hot when connected to an electrical power source?
Circa Capillary
Circa Capillary 2 ай бұрын
:) I would say yes, wires act almost sort of as a conduit for fields to propagate in (especially in a 2-conductor based system where TEM fields are possible). While fields will propagate in all directions, there is some truth to energy flows in the path of least resistance. And hence energy distributes differently depending in the medium it is propagating in.
Anton Leimbach
Anton Leimbach Жыл бұрын
I’ve been an electronic technician since the 90’s and I remember one of my electronics instructors explaining this to us and it still blows my mind all these years later. Fascinating video, thank you for posting.
Cybernetic Butterfly
Cybernetic Butterfly Жыл бұрын
Suppose the bulb in the diagram was at the middle of the top line of the square of wires would the field arrows that were in the diagram still move towards the lightbulb?
akh345 Жыл бұрын
I think it is a bit easier to picture when thinking about microwave Radio Frequency (RF): they literally have wave-guides that look like steel pipes. From the shapes of these "pipes", it is clear that all the energy is in the empty space inside the "pipe" rather than in the conductor on the surface.
Clément Dato
Clément Dato Жыл бұрын
I am not convinced. I think the E field needs to propagate along the wire to have enough intensity to light up the bulb. Otherwise, if I disconnect the bulb from the wire, according to the video, it seems the light would still be on, which cannot be right. Would you might help me understand this?
Yogurtmaker Жыл бұрын
Can you explain something? When I switch my house light on, what distance is taken into equasion? From lightbulb to nearest transformer?
akh345 Жыл бұрын
@Yogurtmaker From the switch to the light.
Conrado Vitor Lopes Fernandes
Conrado Vitor Lopes Fernandes 3 ай бұрын
I think this is a well-produced video that jumps to both right and wrong conclusions. Okay, energy is transmitted by the electromagnetic field. But the electrons passing through the wires play their part. Otherwise, a broken wire would conduct energy just as well as a good wire. Maybe I could agree with your answer just because of the capacitance of the proposed system, but as a RESIDUAL energy transferer.
Samyak Mittal
Samyak Mittal 3 ай бұрын
I am a grade 12 science student and I found this video really interesting.
Ernst Sibberson
Ernst Sibberson 2 ай бұрын
And at UHF frequencies, there is a phenomenon called skin effect. In electromagnetism, skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current to become distributed within a conductor such that the current density is largest near the surface of the conductor and decreases exponentially with greater depths in the conductor.
mrMirzam Ай бұрын
Thank you Veritassium. This is indeed the element of truth.
Joe Stevens
Joe Stevens 2 ай бұрын
Well, while we are picking at things, my HS math teacher would slap us on the wrist if we said "over" because that is not a math function. We were required to say "divided by" since that leads to better understanding. That has stuck with me for over a half century. Cool presentation.
Matteo L.
Matteo L. Жыл бұрын
I think one of the most difficult things about the Poynting vector is to visualise the cross product in your mind. That video with all fields represented in space is extremely helpful and should be shown in EM courses.
marvinalbert Жыл бұрын
The poynting vector visualization is wrong though! Vectors are much closer to the wires. Unfortunately a misconception in this video
Isaac Groen
Isaac Groen Жыл бұрын
@marvinalbert not wrong, just not 100% to scale is what you meant.
marvinalbert Жыл бұрын
@Isaac Groen Actually arrow directions are pretty wrong, they're much more parallel to the wires.
Eugene Bird
Eugene Bird Жыл бұрын
The vector isn’t a real thing, it’s just a mathematical device.
Randy Pittman
Randy Pittman Жыл бұрын
Once again I remember why I nearly failed E&M in college.
Tim Tully
Tim Tully 3 ай бұрын
Deeply intriguing. But why does a person only get shocked when he touches a circuit's conductive wire or a battery terminal? What happens then? How far outside the conductor do the electrical and magnetic fields extend? Why is there no effect if you just come into (or near?) one or both of those fields? Thank you for the video but it's taking me some effort to get the whole picture.
Baldwin Wallace
Baldwin Wallace 3 ай бұрын
Is there a way to use this electricity / power from the magnetic field without touching the wire? Could you put an LED yard light (on a wooden pole) close enough to the overhead wires - that lead into my house - to turn it on? It sure seems like I could and I am going to try it.
Paul Frederick
Paul Frederick 3 ай бұрын
You can induce a current in a conductor from the magnetic field generated by flowing current. But that current has to change, or your pickup conductor has to move. There has to be some movement between your pickup and the magnetic lines of flux. That's what transformers do. They couple currents. When you apply alternating current to one winding it induces a current in the secondary winding. The two coils are galvanically isolated though. Unless it's an autotransformer. Magnetism obeys the inverse square law though. Field strength drops with the square of the distance. Some overhead wires carry very high voltages so be careful. You might want to watch some videos of high tension wires being discharged. It is sobering stuff.
Alonso B
Alonso B Ай бұрын
Everyone seems to have wireless chargers nowadays so you do use such a system. Nothing novel about it.
Ishita Tripathi
Ishita Tripathi Ай бұрын
I have a question. In many applications, we use special cables such as MI cables, super screened cables, which do increase the SNR and better /more current. How does that happen?
Zadok Everwim-Odu
Zadok Everwim-Odu 18 күн бұрын
Very well explained, thanks
Ripsometime 22 күн бұрын
Okay, but If I stood at one of the lines extremes with a pair of scissors and cut the line, how long would it take for the light bulb to turn off? Would it take half a second for the collapse of the electromagnetic field? Or would it happen nearly instantly? If its the latter we could use a switch to transmit information nearly instantly over astromonical distances. If its the former then I'm confused as to how the field propogates to the lightbulb near instantly.
lv8pv Жыл бұрын
My grandmother lived on a very remote and isolated island in Norway. When they first got electricity, they had one lightbulb connection hanging from the ceiling in the best living-room (it was only used when having fine visitors). The thing was that when the electrician first lay out the cables, they had no bulb to put in the socket. Also the electricity was not yet connected to the house but would be soon. So each night they put a bucket under the empty socket just in case the electricity would be connected while they was sleeping. Not to spill anything on the floor.
Demon Cloud
Demon Cloud Жыл бұрын
Nice story
creative intentions
creative intentions Жыл бұрын
Lol that's amazing.
pc Offer
pc Offer Жыл бұрын
michange3141592 Жыл бұрын
A colleague's grandparents, living on farm land in Belgium, would dress up on Sunday to watch television, thinking the presentator was actually talking to them and did see them.
Cmdr Sighman
Cmdr Sighman Жыл бұрын
I have a friend who turns off the switches on all his unused power points - not because of safety, even though that's sensible - but because he believes electricity pours out when there's nothing plugged in, wasting his money.
Clown Bot
Clown Bot 3 ай бұрын
The energy is extracted from the movement of the electrons at the load. It doesn't matter which direction that the electrons are moving, you can rectify it.
danjacksonguitar Ай бұрын
I'm so chuffed I got the right answer and could understand this, school served well - thank you Mr. Evans.
Alan Sellers
Alan Sellers 2 ай бұрын
So how does Coax and similar signal transmission line fit into this considering it is so effective though it purposely uses a grounded shield? That sounds a lot like your trans-atlantic cable example, but with the opposite result.
Chris Frank
Chris Frank 3 ай бұрын
I have a question, as the electrical and magnetic energy travel in space, since they're in phase, a moment occurs where both the Elec and Mag fields are 0, How does positive energy re-emerge from 0? I always thought that the peaks would be 90* out of phase, but it is said to be in phase. How is this possible?
Slim821 3 ай бұрын
Should have mentioned Stinemetze was the key to designing the waveguide wire also known as a low loss Coax cable. Very important person in History!!
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